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The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America

Edited by Ronald H. Bayor

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July, 2004
Cloth, 1104 pages,
ISBN: 978-0-231-11994-8
$100.00 / £69.00


Chapter 1, Ethnicity in Seventeenth-Century English America, 1600–1700, Carol Berkin


1. A Letter from a Gentleman of the City of New-York, 1698

2. The Beginning, Progress, and Conclusion of Bason’s Rebellion in Virginia, In the Years 1675 and 1676

3. Edward Winslow, "Chapter 7," Good News from New England, 1624

4. Peter Schaghen to the Directors of the West India Company, 1626

5. Powhatan’s Address to John Smith, 1609

6. Richard Frethorne to his father and mother, March 20, April 2 & 3, 1623

7. Reverend Samuel Smith to Ichabod Smith, January 1698/99

8. A Declaration or Confession of [Roger] Court Crotosse one of Col. John Wests Servants of some misdemeanors committed or done by him or other Servants belonging to the said Col. West, 1684

9. "Whereas Hugh Gwynº" Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, 9th of July 1640

9. "Whereas Hugh Gwynº" Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, 9th of July 1640

10. John Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale, 1614

10. John Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale, 1614

11. Petition of Jewish Merchants to the Honorable Lords, Directors of the Chartered West India Company, Chamber of the City of Amsterdam, January 1655

12. The Case of Maria Negro, Court of Assistants, Boston, 1681

13. Declaration against the Proceedings of Nathaniel Bacon, 1676

14. "An Act Defining the Status of Mulatto Bastards," December 1662

15. Petition of Richard Saltonstall, 1645

16. The Remonstrance of the Inhabitants of Flushing, Long Island, against the Law Against Quakers and Subsequent Proceedings, January 1, 1658

17. William Bradford describes his encounter with Samoset, 1621

18. Rev. Johannes Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam, March 18, 1655

19. Statement showing wherein Capt. Daniel Brodhead has exceeded the instruction given by the Honorable Richard Nicols, Governor General, April 25, 1667

20. Petition of Marylanders, November 20, 1690 and the Response to the Petition by John Coode and Kenelm Cheseldine, December 22, 1690

21. The Massachusetts Bible, 1663

22. Portrait of Princess Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan

23. Benjamin Tompson, New England’s Crisis, 1676

24. Vincent Bigot’s Report, "Of the Piety and Devotion of the Christian Iroquois, 1677

25. The Testimony of Marmaduke Stevenson, 1659

Chapter 2 Ethnicity in Eighteenth-Century North America, 1701–1788, – Graham Russell Hodges


1. Indian Women of Cabo San Lucas

2. Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants

3. The Life, History and Unparalled Sufferings of John Jea, the African Preacher

4. The Journal of Nicholas Collin, 1746–1831—Extract of the Most Noteworthy Transactions during My Incumbency as Rector at the Raccoon and Pensneck Congregations, From September 30, 1773

5. The Life of the Reverend Devereux Jarrett, Written by Himself; Excerpts

6. The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton

7. "A List of the Different Nations and Tribes of Indians in the Northern District of North America, with the number of their fighting men," early 1700s

8. J. Hector St. John Crèvecoeur, "What is an American"

9. "It Was Not Smallpox"—report of Jean-Charles d'Arnaud, 1732

10. The Independent Reflector, William Livingston on Kings College, 1753

11. Thomas Jefferson – "Notes on the State of Virginia"

12. "A Gouging Match"; "A Backwoods Ball and Fight"

13. New York Colonial Muster Rools, 1755

14. Rev. Alexander Stewart to Rev. John Waring, 1764; James Francis to Rev. Alexander Stewart, 1764; Rev. Samuel Auchmuty to Rev. John Waring, 1761

15. Abigail Franks to Naphtali Franks 1743

16. Daniel Horsmanden, The New York Conspiracy, 1741

Chapter 3 The Limits of Equality: Racial and Ethnic Tensions in the New Republic, 1789–1936– Marion R. Casey


1. Sarah Cary to Samuel Cary, July 1792

2. Timothy Pickering to Anthony Wayne, 8 April 1795

3. "The New-York Society for the Information and Assistance of Persons Emigrating from Foreign Countries," New-York Register, 1795

4. "The Naturalization of Immigrants, 1795"

5. Edward Livingston, "Against the Alien Act, 1798"

6. Red Jacket, "Against White Missions Among the Indians"

7. United German Benefit Society, By-Laws of the United German Benefit Society: agreed upon at different meetings

8. "Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves March 2, 1807"

4. August Spies autobiography, 1886.

9. Max Farrand, ed, A Journey to Ohio in 1810: As Recorded in the Journal of Margaret Dwight

5. Thomas Nast, "This Is a White Man’s Government" Harper’s Weekly, September 5, 1868

10. "Petition of the Trustees of the Congregation of Shearith Israel, 1811"

11. William Sampson, The Catholic Question in America: Whether a Roman Catholic Clergyman be in any case compellable to disclose the secrets of Auricular Confession

12. Paul Cuffe, "Memorial Petition to Congress, 1813"

13. John Walker, A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English Language: in which not only the Meaning of Every Word is Explained and the Sound of Every Syllable Distinctly Shown,ºTo which are Prefixed Principles of English PronunciationºLikewise, Rules to be Observed by the Natives of Scotland, Ireland and London, for Avoiding Their Respective Peculiarties

14. John Doyle, 25 January 1818

15. "The Shamrock Friendly Association"

16. Hezekiah Niles, "Editorial," Niles'Weekly Register, 8 August 1818

17. Jesse Torrey, A portraiture of domestic slavery in the United States: proposing national measures for the education and gradual emancipation of the slaves, without impairing the legal privileges of the possessor, and a project of a colonial asylum for free people of colour: including memoirs of facts on the interior traffic in slaves, and on kidnapping.

18. "Stockbridge, Maine," Report of the Select Committee of the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and Others in North America

19. Catherine Brown, the Converted Cherokee: A Missionary Drama, founded on fact, written by a lady

20. Clear and Concise statement of New-York and the surrounding country: containing a faithful account of many of those base impositions which are constantly and uniformly practiced upon British emigrants by crafty, designing and unprincipled adventurers

21. Pennsylvania General Assembly, Resolutions relative to preventing the introduction of slavery into new states

22. "Diary of Catherine Maria Sedgwick, June 1821"

23. Travels by His Highness Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach through North America in the Years 1825 and 1826

24. William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator

25. Mathew Carey, Letters on the Colonization Society: with a view of its probable resultsºthe origin of the Society, increase of the coloured population, manumission of slaves in thfsis countryºaddressed to C.F. Mercer

26. Bayard Tuckerman, ed. The Diary of Philip Hone, 1828–1851

27. Samuel F.B. Morse, Foreign Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States

28. Andrew Jackson, "Removal of Southern Indians to Indian Territory"

29. "Mass at S. Patrick’s, 1836"

30. William L. Stone, The True History of Maria Monk, A Reprint of the Famous Report of Her Charges

Chapter 4

Racial and Ethnic Identity in the United States, 1837–1877– Michael Miller Topp


1. Letter from Martin Weitz, Rockville, Connecticut, to his relatives in Schotten, Vogelsberg, Germany, July 29, 1855.

2. Letter from Angela Heck, New York, New York, to her relatives in Irrel, Trier, Germany, October 26, 1862.

3. German Society in Chicago, Annual Report, 1857–1858.

4. August Spies autobiography, 1886.

5. Thomas Nast, "This Is a White Man’s Government" Harper’s Weekly, September 5, 1868

6. John O’Sullivan, "Annexation," 1845

7. Bessie Conway or, The Irish Girl in America

8. Irish immigrant life in the United States

9. Dennis Kearney, "History of the American Working Classes," 1878

10. "An Act to Protect Free White Labor Against Competition With Chinese Coolie Labor, and to Discourage the Immigration of the Chinese into the State of California," 1862

6. "Atlanta Compromise": Booker T. Washington

11. Colonel Albert S. Evans, "A Cruise on the Barbary Coast," 1873

7. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others": W.E.B. Dubois

12. A sketch of the famous Chinese prostitute Ah Toy

8. Standing Bear’s Protest

13. "The Chinese-Facts for Atlantic Papers."

14. The Page Law, 1875

15. Richard Henry Dana, "California and Its Inhabitants," 1840

16. Antoinio María Osio, "The History of Alta California," 1851

17. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848

18. Juan Seguin, "Personal Memoirs," 1858

19. Juan Cortina organized a rebellion in the 1850s against Anglos in Texas

20. Solomon Northup provides an eyewitness account of a slave auction

21. Harriet Jacobs harrowing account of her life under slavery

22. Letter from James Henry Gooding to Abraham Lincoln, September 28, 1863

23. Letter from Hannah Johnson to Abraham Lincoln, July 31, 1863

24. "black codes" This set of codes is from St. Landry’s parish in Louisiana

25. Letter from Jourdon Anderson to Colonel P.H. Anderson, August 7, 1865

26. Elias Hill testifying before the Congressional Committee Investigating the Ku Klux Klan, 1871

27. Little Bear, "The Sand Creek Massacre," 1864

Chapter 5 Race, Nation and Citizenship in Late Nineteenth-Century America,

1878–1900Mae M. Ngai


1. "The Life Story of a Negro Peon"

2. Plessy v. Ferguson

3. "Southern Horrors."

4. The lynching of William Brooks [photograph]

5. "A Colored Complaint"

6. "Atlanta Compromise": Booker T. Washington

7. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others": W.E.B. Dubois

8. Standing Bear’s Protest

9. Office of Indian Affairs, Field Matron’s job description, 1892

10. "Omaha discuss allotment": A House of Our Own

11. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 1903

12. "Kiansis I"

13. In re Rodriguez, 1897

14. Leong Shee’s testimony, 1893

15. Contract between Mee Yung and Yut Kum: An Agreement Paper by the person Mae Yung

16. "Every Dog Has His Day" 1879

17. Chinese in Napa asylum, 1912

18. Robert Ferrari’s autobiography

19. "How the Other Half Lives"

20. "Immigration Restriction" 1896

21–22 Queen Liliuokalani’s defends her kingdom

23. "A Handbook on the Annexation of Hawaii"

24–25 "The White Man’s Burden" and "Why Talk of the White Man’s Burden?"

26. Bryan’s "Savannah Interview" 1898

27. "To the Philippine People"

28. "Consent of the Governed"

29. "Mark Twain’s Salutation to the Century"

Chapter 6

The Critical Period: Ethnic Emergence and Reaction, 1901–1929Andrew R. Heinze


3. W.E.B. DuBois, "Of Our Spiritual Strivings"

4. Geronimo: His Own Story, 1906

5. Genthe’s Photographs of San Francisco’s Old Chinatown

6. Leonard Covello, The Heart is the Teacher

7. George Kennan, "The Japanese in the San Francisco Public Schools," 1907

8. Theodore Roosevelt, Letter to Philander Knox, February 8, 1909

9. Forverts (Jewish Daily Forward), 1909

10. "Outside the Slaughter House", 1911

11. Horace M. Kallen, "Democracy Versus the Melting-Pot,"

12. Wartime memos to Hugo Munsterbeg, 1914–1916

13. W.E.B. DuBois, "Close Ranks," The Crisis (July 1918) W.E.B. DuBois, "Returning Soldiers," The Crisis (May 1919)

14. Marcus Garvey, "National Anthem of Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League," 1918

15. Willa Cather, My Antonia, 1918

16. W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America

17. The Chicago Commission on Race Relations, The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot, 1922

18. Carl C. Brigham, A Study of American Intelligence, 1923

19. Franz Boas, "The Question of Racial Purity" 1924

20. Gong Lum v. Rice, 1927

21. The Mexican Immigrant: His Life-Story, Autobiographic Documents Collected by Manuel Gamio, 1931

22. "Black and Blue" (recorded by Louis Armstrong, 1929; written by Fats Waller)

Chapter 7 Changing Racial Meanings: Race and Ethnicity in the United States, 1930–1964– Thomas A. Guglielmo and Earl Lewis


1. Frances Perkins to Mr. Arthur Krock, April 22, 1940

2. Ashley Montagu, Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallace of Race

3. Declaration of Intention (to Naturalize) for Joseph Imburgia, Chicago, IL, July 25, 1939

4. Helen Jackson Lee, Nigger in the Window

5. NAACP on black schoolteachers'fight for equal pay

6. George Streator to W.E.B. DuBois, April 18, 1935

7. Ella Earls Cotton, A Spark for My People

8. "That Thanksgiving Turkey," Chicago Defender, November 29, 1924

9. Chinese ILGWU activity in 1930s California

10. Mexican American Workers join the CIO

11. Social Security Board Posters, n.d.

12. Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934

13. The Wheeler-Howard Act, 1934

14. Norfolk, VA. HOLC Ratings

15. United We Win

16. Photo of Navajo Marines, December 1943

17. Zoot Suit Riot

18. Japanese Internment during World War II

19. Japanese American Protests Internment: "Evacuation Was a Mistake"

20. Restrictive Covenant, Pittsfield Township, MI, November 27, 1941

21. Memorandum from Elmer Henderson to Will Maslow, December 20, 1944

22. FBI File of Isaac Alexander Wright

23. "Terrorism Against Negroes in Chicago Since V-J Day – August 1945 to April 1948

24. Jackie Robinson letter to President Dwight Eisenhower

25. March on Washington, 1963

Chapter 8 Racial and Ethnic Relations in America: 1865–2000Timothy J. Meagher


1. Malcom X speech, 1954

2. Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton, Black Power, 1967

3. Native American Graves and Repatriation Act, 1990

4. Hewy Newton interview and Black Panther platform

5. National Black Political Agenda – from The Gary Declaration

6. Molefi Asante The Afrocentric Idea

7. Vine Deloria, Jr., "This Country Was A Lot Better Off When the Indians were Running It"

8. "We Must Hold On to the Old Ways", 1969

9. El Plan de Aztlan

10. Preamble – La Raza Unida party

11. Asian American Political Alliance

12. Amy Uyematsu, "The Emergence of Yellow Power in America," 1969

13. Reparations for Japanese – American Internees, 1968

14. Jesse Jackson speech to Democratic Convention, 1984

15. Kerner Commission Report (National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders)

16. Nat Hentoff interview with Julius Lester, 1969

17. Michael Novak - The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics

18. Monsignor Geno Baroni and Mr. Muench testimony – National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1975

19. Lee lacocca speech to Ethnic Heritage Council of the Pacific Northwest, 1984

20. Mario Cuomo speech, "Abraham Lincoln and our 'Unfinished Work,’" 1986

21. Michael MacDonald, All Souls: A Family Story From Southie

22. Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986, and President Ronald Reagan’s statement

25. Regents of the Univ. of California v. Bakke, 1978

26. President Lyndon Johnson speech, Commencement Address at Howard University, "To Fulfill These Rights," 1965

27. Report - "One Nation, Many People: A Declaration of Cultural Independence

28. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. from The Disuniting of America

29. Oakland, CA School Board on Ebonies, 1996

30. California proposition 227 - Bilingual Education, 1998

31. L.A. riot - from L.A. Times, May 3, 15, 1992, Nov. 16, 19, 1992

32. Trial Transcript from the O.J. Simpson trial, 1995

33. Louis Farrakhan - "The Vision for the Million Man March" and "The Black Woman’s Statement of Support for the Million Man March."

34. President Clinton’s Commission on Race, Town Meeting, 1997


Related Subjects

About the Author

Ronald H. Bayor is professor of history in the School of History, Technology, and Society at the Georgia Institute of Technology’s Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts and recipient of the Immigration and Ethnic History Society’s Distinguished Service award. He is the founding editor of the Journal of American Ethnic History and the author of many books, including Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta and Fiorello LaGuardia: Ethnicity and Reform. He lives in Atlanta, Georgia.

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