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Sources of Japanese Tradition: Volume 2, 1600 to 2000

Wm. Theodore de Bary, Carol Gluck, and Arthur Tiedemann

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vol. 2
second edition
April, 2005
Cloth, 1448 pages,
ISBN: 978-0-231-12984-8
$90.00 / £62.00


Part IV The Tokugawa Peace

20. Ieyasu and the Founding of the Tokugawa Shogunate, by Willem Boot

Ieyasuís Revenge and Compassion

21. Confucianism in the Early Tokugawa Period, by Willem Boot

Fujiwara Seika and the Rise of Neo-Confucianism

Hayashi Razan

The Later History of the Hayashi Family School

The Way of Heaven

22. The Spread of Neo-Confucianism in Japan

Yamazaki Ansai and Zhu Xi Studies, by Barry Steben

The Mito School, by Barry Steben

Kaibara Ekken: Human Nature and the Study of Nature, by Mary Evelyn Tucker

The Oyomei (Wang Yangming) School in Japan, by Barry Steben

Kumazawa Banzan: Confucian Practice in Seventeenth-Century Japan, by Ian James McMullen

Nakae Tojuís Successors in the Oyomei School, by Barry Steben

23. The Evangelic Furnace: Japanís First Encounter with the West, by J. S. A. Elisonas

European Documents

A Christian Critique of Shinto

Alexandro Valignanoís Japanese Mission Policy

A Jesuit Priestís Observations of Women

Japanese Documents

The Anti-Christian Edicts of Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Fabian Fucan Pro and Contra

A Buddhist Refutation of Christianity

24. Confucian Revisionists, by Wm. Theodore de Bary and John A. Tucker

Fundamentalism and Revisionism in the Critique of Neo-Confucianism

Yamaga Soko and the Civilizing of the Samurai, by John A. Tucker

Ito Jinsaiís School of Ancient Meanings, by John A. Tucker

Ogyu Sorai and the Return to the Classics

Muro Kyusoís Defense of Neo-Confucianism

25. Varieties of Neo-Confucian Education

Principles of Education

Yamazaki Ansai, by John A. Tucker

Kaibara Ekken, by Mary Evelyn Tucker

The Shizutani School, by Mary Evelyn Tucker

The Merchant Academy of Kaitokudo, by Tetsuo Najita

Lecture on the Early Chapters of the Analects and Mencius

Items of Understanding, 1727

Items of Understanding, 1758

Ogyu Soraiís Approach to Learning, by Richard Minear

Hirose Tansoís School System, by Marleen Kassel

26. Popular Instruction

Ishida Baiganís Learning of the Mind and the Way of the Merchant, by Janine Sawada

The House Codes of Tokugawa Merchant Families

The Testament of Shimai Soshitsu

The Code of the Okaya House

Ihara Saikaku

Mitsui Takafusa

Muro Kyuso

Hosoi Heishu

How to Behave at Temple Schools

27. The Vocabulary of Japanese Aesthetics III, by Donald Keene

Chikamatsu Monzaemon

28. Haiku and the Democracy of Poetry as a Popular Art, by Donald Keene

Matsuo Basho


29. "Dutch Learning", by Grant Goodman

Engelbert Kaempfer

Sugita Genpaku

Otsuki Gentaku

Shiba Kokan

30. Eighteenth-Century Rationalism

Arai Hakuseki's Confucian Perspective on Government and Society, by Kate Nakai

The Function of Rites

The Evolution of Japanese History

Hakuseki's View of Christianity and the West

Hakuseki's Approach to Fiscal Policy and Trade

Tominaga Nakamotoís Historical Relativism

Ando Shoeki's Ecological Community

Miura Baien's Search for a New Logic, by Rosemary Mercer

"The Origin of Price"

Baien's System of "Logic"

Space and Time

Heaven-and-Earth Is the Teacher

Jori and Science

Kaiho Seiryo and the Laws of Economics

31. The Way of the Warrior II

The Debate over the Ako Vendetta, by John A. Tucker and Barry Steben

Okado Denpachiro

Religious Nuances of the Ako Case, by John A. Tucker and Barry Steben

Hayashi Razan

Hayashi Hoko

Muro Kyuso

Ogyu Sorai

Sato Naokata

Asami Keisai

Dazai Shundai

Goi Ranshu

Fukuzawa Yukichi

The Ako Vendetta Dramatized, by Donald Keene

Hagakure and the Way of the Samurai, by Barry Steben

32. The National Learning Schools, by Peter Nosco

Kada no Azumamaro

Kamo no Mabuchi

Motoori Norinaga

Love and Poetry

Good and Evil in The Tale of Genji

Hirata Atsutane

Okuni Takamasa

33. Buddhism in the Tokugawa Period

Suzuki Shosan, by Royall Tyler

Takuan Soho, by William Bodiford


Hakuin Ekaku

Jiun Sonja Paul Watt

34. Orthodoxy, Protest, and Local Reform

The Prohibition of Heterodox Studies

The Kansei Edict

The Justification for the Kansei Edict

The Later Wang Yangming (Oyomei) School, by Barry Steben

Sato Issai

Oshio Heihachiro

Agrarian Reform and Cooperative Planning

Ninomiya Sontoku

35. Forerunners of the Restoration

Rai Sanyo and Yamagata Daini: Loyalism

Rai Sanyo's Unofficial History, by Barry Steben

Yamagata Daini's New Thesis, by Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi

Honda Toshiaki: Ambitions for Japan

Sato Nobuhiro: Totalitarian Nationalism

36. The Debate over Seclusion and Restoration

The Later Mito School

The Opening of Japan from Within

Sakuma Shozan: Eastern Ethics and Western Science

Yokoi Shonan: Opening the Country for the Common Good

Yoshida Shoin: Death-Defying Heroism

Fukuzawa Yukichi: Pioneer of Westernization

Reform Proposals of Sakamoto Ryoma, Saigo Takamori, and Okubo Toshimichi

Sakamoto Ryoma: Eight-Point Proposal

Letter from Saigo Takamori and Okubo Toshimichi on the Imperial Restoration

Part V Japan, Asia, and the West

37. The Meiji Restoration, by Fred G. Notehelfer

The Abolition of Feudalism and the Centralization of the Meiji State

The Leaders and Their Vision

The Iwakura Mission

Consequences of the Iwakura Mission: Saigo and Okubo on Korea

The Meiji Emperor

38. Civilization and Enlightenment, by Albert Craig

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Enlightenment Thinkers of the Meirokusha: On Marriage

Mori Arinori

Kato Hiroyuki

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Sakatani Shiroshi

Tsuda Mamichi

Nakamura Masanao: China Should Not Be Despised

39. Popular Rights and Constitutionalism, by James Huffman

Debating a National Assembly, 1873-1875

Itagaki Taisuke

Nakamura Masanao

Representative Assemblies and National Progress, February 1879

Defining the Constitutional State, 1876-1883

Ito Hirobumi

Okuma Shigenobu

Chiba Takasaburo

Nakae Chomin

The Emergence of Political Parties

Itagaki Taisuke

Fukuchi Gen'ichiro

Okuma Shigenobu

Part Ozaki Yukio

Bestowing the Constitution on the People, 1884-1889

Controlling the Freedom and People's Rights Movement

The Meiji Constitution

40. Education in Meiji Japan, by Richard Rubinger

Views in the Early Meiji Period

Iwakura Tomomi and Aristocratic Education

Kido Takayoshi and Ito Hirobumi on Universal Education

Fukuzawa Yukichi and Education

The First Meiji School System

The Confucian Critique

Motoda Eifu and Emperor-Centered Education

Tani Tateki's Critique of the West

Nakamura Masanao's Synthesis of East and West

Mori Arinori and the Later Meiji School System

Inoue Kowashi and Patriotic Training

The Imperial Rescript on Education

Teachers and Reform from Below

State Control over Textbooks

The Education of Women in the Meiji Period

41. Nationalism and Pan-Asianism

State Shinto, by Helen Hardacre

The Idea of Shinto as a National Teaching

The Divinity of the Emperor

The Patriotic Meaning of Shrines

State Shinto in the Colonies of Imperial Japan

Tokutomi Soho: A Japanese Nationalistís View of the West and Asia, by Fred G. Notehelfer

Supporting the Imperial State and Military Expansion

Okakura Kakuzo: Aesthetic Pan-Asianism, by Aida Yuan Wong

Yanagi Muneyoshi and the Kwanghwa Gate in Seoul, Korea

42. The High Tide of Prewar Liberalism, by Arthur E. Tiedemann

Democracy at Home

Minobe Tatsukichi: The Legal Foundation for Liberal Government

Yoshino Sakuzo: Democracy as minpon shugi

Kawai Eijiro: A Rebuke to the Military

Ishibashi Tanzan: A Liberal Business Journalist

Kiyosawa Kiyoshi: Why Liberalism?

Ienaga Saburo: The Formation of a Liberal

Peaceful Cooperation Abroad

Shidehara Kijuro: Conciliatory Diplomacy

Yamamuro Sobun: Call for a Peaceful Japan

43. Socialism and the Left, by Andrew Barshay

The Early Socialist Movement


Kotoku Shusui

Kagawa Toyohiko

Socialism and the Left

Osugi Sakae

Kaneko Fumiko


The Debate About Japanese Capitalism

Kawakami Hajime

Yamada Moritaro

Uno Kozo

Marxist Cultural Criticism

Tosaka Jun

Nakano Shigeharu

The Tenko Phenomenon

44. The Rise of Revolutionary Nationalism, by Marius Jansen

Japan and Asia

Agitation by Assassination

The Plight of the Countryside

Kita Ikki and the Reform Wing of Ultranationalism

The Conservative Reaffirmation

Watsuji Tetsuro

45. Empire and War, by Peter Duus

The Impact of World War I: A Conflict Between Defenders and Opponents of the Status Quo

A Plan to Occupy Manchuria

The Economic Need for Expansion

Hashimoto Kingoro

Konoe Fumimaro

National Mobilization

Army Ministry

Konoe Fumimaro

The Imperial Rule Assistance Association

Spiritual Mobilization

Economic Mobilization

The Greater East Asia War

The Decision for War with the United States

The War's Goals

The Greater East Asia Conference


Part VI Postwar Japan

46. The Occupation Years, 1945-1952, by Marlene Mayo

Initial Official Policies, American and Japanese

A New Basic Document: The 1947 Constitution

Introducing a New Civil Code

The New Educational System

Labor Unions

Rural Land Reform

Economic Stabilization and Reconstruction

Reconstructing Japan as a Nation of Peace and Culture

Morito Tatsuo

Yokota Kisaburo

Regaining Sovereignty in a Bipolar World

Some Japanese Views of the War

Kurihara Sadako

Oe Kenzaburo

Tanaka Kotaro

47. Democracy and High Growth, by Andrew Gordon

The Movement Against the Separate Treaty and the U.S.- Japan Military Alliance

The Government's View of the Economy in 1956: "The 'postwar' is over"

The Transformation of the Postwar Monarchy

Two Views of the Security Treaty Crisis of 1960

Maruyama Masao

Yoshimoto Takaaki

The Consumer Revolution in Postwar Japan, 1960

The Economic Planning Agency's New Long-Range Economic Plan of Japan, 1961-1970

Environmental Activism in Postwar Japan: Minamata Disease

Bulldozing the Archipelago: The Politics of Economic Growth

The Philosophy of Japanese Labor Management in the High-Growth Era

The Japanese Middle Class at the End of the Twentieth Century

Part VII Aspects of the Modern Experience

48. The New Religions, by Helen Hardacre




Deguchi Nao

Deguchi Onisaburo

Reiyukai kyodan

Soka gakkai

Makiguchi Tsunesaburo

Toda Josei

Ikeda Daisaku

49. Japan and the World in Cultural Debate

Uchimura Kanzo

Natsume Soseki

Nishida Kitaro

Endo Shusaku

Mishima Yukio

Oe Kenzaburo

50. Gender Politics and Feminism, by Brett de Bary

Gender and Modernization

Magazines for Women's Education

Women and Labor

Hiratsuka Raicho and the Bluestocking Society

Postwar Japanese Feminism

Aoki Yayoi and Ecofeminism

Matsui Yayori and Asian Migrant Women in Japan

Ueno Chizuko and the Cultural Context of Japanese Feminism

Saito Chiyo and Japanese Feminism

51. Thinking with the Past: History Writing in Modern Japan, by Carol Gluck

New Histories in Meiji Japan

Taguchi Ukichi

Shigeno Yasutsugu

Kume Kunitake

Marxist History Writing

Writing About the Meiji Restoration

Tokutomi Soho

Noro Eitaro

Nakamura Masanori

Banno Junji

Bito Masahide

Shiba Ryotaro

A High-School History Textbook

Alternative Histories

Ifa Fuyu

Yanagita Kunio

Takamure Itsue

Maruyama Masao

Irokawa Daikichi

Yasumaru Yoshio

The Asia-Pacific War in History and Memory

Maruyama Masao

Ienaga Saburo

Oe Kenzaburo

Fujiwara Akira

Kobayashi Yoshinori

Ishizaka Kei

Twentieth-Century Design Stamps

Rethinking the Nation

Amino Yoshihiko

Kano Masanao

Arano Yasunori and Colleague

Related Subjects


About the Author

Wm. Theodore de Bary is John Mitchell Mason Professor Emeritus and Provost Emeritus of Columbia University and currently holds the title of Special Service Professor. He has written extensively on Confucianism in East Asia, and was general editor of the first editions of Sources of Chinese Tradition, Sources of Indian Tradition, Sources of Japanese Tradition, and Sources of Korean Tradition.Carol Gluck is the George Sansom Professor of History at Columbia University. She is the author of Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period and the coeditor of Asia in Western and World History and Showa: The Japan of Hirohito. Arthur E. Tiedemann is a member of the Society of Senior Scholars at the Heyman Center for the Humanities, Columbia University. He is the author of Modern Japan: A Brief History and Introduction to Japanese Civilization.

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