Anatomy of a Wrongful Execution
In 1989, Texas executed Carlos DeLuna, a poor Hispanic man with childlike intelligence, for the murder of Wanda Lopez, a convenience store clerk. His execution passed unnoticed for years until a team of Columbia Law School faculty and students almost accidentally chose to investigate his case and found that DeLuna almost certainly was innocent. They discovered that no one had cared enough about either the defendant or the victim to make sure the real perpetrator was found. Everything that could go wrong in a criminal case did. This book documents DeLuna's conviction, which was based on a single, nighttime, cross-ethnic eyewitness identification with no corroborating forensic evidence. At his trial, DeLuna's defense, that another man named Carlos had committed the crime, was not taken seriously. The lead prosecutor told the jury that the other Carlos, Carlos Hernandez, was a "phantom" of DeLuna's imagination. In upholding the death penalty on appeal, both the state and federal courts concluded the same thing: Carlos Hernandez did not exist.
The evidence the Columbia team uncovered reveals that Hernandez not only existed but was well known to the police and prosecutors. He had a long history of violent crimes similar to the one for which DeLuna was executed. Families of both Carloses mistook photos of each for the other, and Hernandez's violence continued after DeLuna was put to death. This book and its website (thewrongcarlos.net) reproduce law-enforcement, crime lab, lawyer, court, social service, media, and witness records, as well as court transcripts, photographs, radio traffic, and audio and videotaped interviews, documenting one of the most comprehensive investigations into a criminal case in U.S. history.
The result is eye-opening yet may not be unusual. Faulty eyewitness testimony, shoddy legal representation, and prosecutorial misfeasance continue to put innocent people at risk of execution. The principal investigators conclude with novel suggestions for improving accuracy among the police, prosecutors, forensic scientists, and judges.
"Given the quality of the work and the importance of the subject, this book will become a classic in the field. It is as good a book about the death penalty as I have ever read." — Austin Sarat, Amherst College
"Wrenching... death penalty opponents now have a definitive example to cite; death penalty proponents have an agonizing case to consider." — Kirkus (Starred Review)
"A gripping read." — Library Journal
"[An] infuriating yet engrossing book on wrongful conviction... An important critique of our legal system." — Publishers Weekly
"This case is examined to such an earth's-core depth - the book is full of site maps and footnotes and its website features much more -- that readers will come away absolutely convinced that the conviction of Carlos DeLuna was a profound injustice." — Boston Globe
"This book is distinctive in its sheer comprehensiveness of investigation and presentation. It will be an instant classic in criminology." — Jordan Steiker, University of Texas at Austin
"Liebman and his coauthors tell an important story of alleged wrongful execution. The story of Carlos DeLuna highlights several important yet often overlooked problems plaguing our criminal justice system, ranging from the pitfalls of eyewitness identification to the disadvantages of the restrictions of habeas corpus." — Meghan Ryan, Southern Methodist University School of Law
"Because over a hundred innocent men have been rescued from death row, the odds that one or many others have been put to death are overwhelming, but those who support execution must live in denial of these statistics. The Wrong Carlos is a case study of the fabulous recklessness of Texas death penalty justice, a study that destroys the myth of the mistake-proof executioner in the death penalty capital of the United States." — Franklin E. Zimring, University of California, Berkeley
"A masterful deconstruction of the Lopez murder and police investigation followed by the prosecution and execution of the wrong man. Given the number of men already exonerated from death row and the unacceptable incidence of innocent men convicted of capital crimes, there can be no doubt that innocent men have been executed by the state. Liebman's command of the facts and intellectual precision, ultimately infused with a moral urgency, makes a compelling claim that Carlos DeLuna is one of those innocent men." — Peter J. Neufeld and Barry Scheck, directors, Innocence Project
Part I. The Death of Wanda Lopez
4. Crime Scene
Part II. The Lives of Carlos Hernandez
6. Probation and Parole
9. Mistaken Identity
Part III. The Prosecution of Carlos DeLuna
12. No Defense
Part IV. The Passion of Carlos DeLuna
Part V. The Scars of Dina Ybañez
Read an excerpt from The Wrong Carlos:
Special Mention - 2015 Law and Society Association's Herbert Jacob Book Prize